CRP Research

Treatment Studies

The efficacy of the CRP as a stand-alone intervention  was established in a randomized clinical trial published in 2017 in the Journal of Affective Disorders. In this study, the CRP was compared to existing suicide prevention methods (referred to as "treatment as usual") available in an emergency department and mental health clinics. Individuals who received the CRP were 76% less likely to make a suicide attempt during the 6 month follow-up period. The CRP also contributed to faster reductions in suicidal ideation. 


The CRP was also a central component of Brief Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (BCBT), which reduces suicidal behavior by 60% as compared to treatment as usual. 


Versions of the CRP have been used in treatments shown to reduce suicidal behaviors:

  • Attempted suicide short intervention program (ASSIP);
  • Cognitive Therapy for Suicide Prevention (CT-SP); and
  • Emergency Department Safety Assessment and Follow-Up Evaluation (ED-SAFE).

Other CRP research findings:

  • The CRP immediately reduces negative emotional distress and suicidal intent among suicidal individual (Bryan et al., 2017);
  • Discussing an individual's reasons for living during the CRP increases hope, leads to larger reductions in suicidal intent, and decrease the likelihood of psychiatric hospitalization (Bryan et al., 2017).

Additional studies are underway to further test the CRP and to improve its effects. 

CRP Publications

Bryan, C. J., Corso, K. A., Neal-Walden, T. A., & Rudd, M. D. (2009). Managing suicide risk in primary care: Practice recommendations for behavioral health consultants. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40(2), 148-155. (available here)


Bryan, C.J., Mintz, J., Clemans, T.A., Burch, T.S., Leeson, B., Williams, S.R., & Rudd, M.D. (2017). The effect of crisis response planning on patient mood state and clinician decision-making: a randomized clinical trial with acutely suicidal U.S. soldiers. Psychiatric Services. (available here)


Bryan, C. J., Mintz, J., Clemans, T. A., Leeson, B., Burch, T. S., Williams, S. R., ... & Rudd, M. D. (2017). Effect of crisis response planning vs. contracts for safety on suicide risk in US Army Soldiers: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Affective Disorders, 212, 64-72. (available here)


Rudd, M. D., Bryan, C. J., Wertenberger, E. G., Peterson, A. L., Young-McCaughan, S., Mintz, J., ... & Wilkinson, E. (2015). Brief cognitive-behavioral therapy effects on post-treatment suicide attempts in a military sample: results of a randomized clinical trial with 2-year follow-up. American Journal of Psychiatry, 172(5), 441-449. (available here)


Rudd, M. D., Mandrusiak, M., & Joiner Jr, T. E. (2006). The case against no‐suicide contracts: the commitment to treatment statement as a practice alternative. Journal of clinical psychology, 62(2), 243-251. (available here

Related Books & Manuals

Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Suicide Prevention

An innovative treatment approach with a strong empirical evidence base, brief cognitive-behavioral therapy for suicide prevention (BCBT) is presented in step-by-step detail in this authoritative manual. Proven interventions are described for building emotion regulation and crisis management skills and dismantling the patient's suicidal belief system. (Purchase

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Preventing Suicide Attempts

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Preventing Suicide Attempts consolidates the accumulated knowledge and efforts of leading suicide researchers, and describes how a common, cognitive behavioral model of suicide has resulted in 50% or greater reductions in suicide attempts across clinical settings. (Purchase)

Treating Suicidal Behavior: An Effective Time-Limited Approach

Treating Suicidal Behavior describes an empirically supported cognitive-behavioral treatment approach. The clinician is guided to assess suicidal behavior and implement interventions tailored to the severity, chronicity, and diagnostic complexity of the patient's symptoms. (Purchase)

Managing Suicide Risk in Primary Care

Firmly grounded in the clinical realities of primary care, Managing Suicide Risk in Primary Care addresses the key issues that often plague behavioral health consultants  in such settings where appointments are brief, patient contact is limited, and decision making and treatment are collaborative. (Purchase)